43edo

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43 tone equal temperament

43edo divides the octave into 43 equal parts of 27.907 cents each. It is strongly associated with meantone temperament, particularly 1/5 comma meantone, being a good tuning system in the 5, 7, 11, and 13-limit. The version of 11-limit meantone is the one tempering out 99/98, 176/175 and 441/440 sometimes called Huygens. 43-equal has the first good 13-limit meantone available as an equal division of the octave. The baroque, french, ironically hearing and speech impaired acoustician Joseph Sauveur based his system on 43 equal tones to the octave, calling them "merides". Further information: http://tonalsoft.com/enc/m/meride.aspx

In the 13-limit, we get two versions of meantone equivalent in 43et, one, meridetone, tempering out 78/77, the other, grosstone, 144/143. Meridetone has generator mapping <0 1 4 10 18 27|, and grosstone <0 1 4 10 18 -16|; 43 supplies the optimal patent val for meridetone.

The 43 patent val <43 68 100 121 149 159| maps 5 to 100 steps, allowing the divison of 5 into 20 equal parts, leading to jerome temperament, an interesting higher-limit system for which 43 supplies the optimal patent val in the 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 and 23 limits. It also provides the optimal patent val for 11- and 13-limit amavil temperament, which is not a meantone temperament. Thuja temperament is also a possibility, in which five generators, (~11/8)^5 = ~5/1, with MOS of 15 and 28.

43edo is the 14th prime edo, following 41edo and coming before 47edo.

Although not consistent, it performs quite decently in very high limits. It has unambiguous mappings for all prime harmonics up to 64, with the sole exceptions of 23 and, perhaps, 41. The mappings for composite harmonics can then be derived from those for the primes, giving an almost-complete version of mode 32 of the harmonic series, although the aforementioned lack of consistency will give some unusual results. Indeed, the step size of 43edo is very close to the septimal comma (64:63), while two steps is close to 32:31, and four steps to 16:15.

Intervals

Degrees Cents value Approximate 13-limit Ratios ups and downs notation
0 0 1/1 P1 perfect unison D
1 27.907 ^1, d2 up unison, dim 2nd D^, Ebb
2 55.814 vA1, ^d2 downaug unison, updim 2nd D#v, Ebb^
3 83.721 vm2 downminor 2nd Ebv
4 111.628 17/16, 16/15, 15/14 m2 minor 2nd Eb
5 139.535 12/11, 13/12, 14/13 ^m2 upminor 2nd Eb^
6 167.442 11/10 vM2 downmajor 2nd Ev
7 195.349 9/8, 10/9 M2 major 2nd E
8 223.256 8/7 ^M2 upmajor 2nd E^
9 251.163 15/13 vA2, ^d3 downaug 2nd, updim 3rd E#v, Fb^
10 279.07 7/6, 13/11 vm3 downminor 3rd Fv
11 306.977 6/5 m3 minor 3rd F
12 334.884 17/14, 39/32 ^m3 upminor 3rd F^
13 362.791 11/9, 16/13 vM3 downmajor 3rd F#v
14 390.698 5/4 M3 major 3rd F#
15 418.605 9/7, 14/11 ^M3 upmajor 3rd F#^
16 446.512 13/10 vA3, ^d4 downaug 3rd, updim 4th Fxv, Gb^
17 474.419 21/16 v4 down 4th Gv
18 502.326 4/3 P4 perfect 4th G
19 530.233 15/11 ^4 up 4th G^
20 558.139 11/8, 18/13 vA4 downaug 4th G#v
21 586.046 7/5 A4, vd5 aug 4th, downdim 5th G#, Abv
22 613.953 10/7 ^A4, d5 upaug 4th, dim 5th G#^, Ab
23 641.86 16/11, 13/9 ^d5 updim 5th Ab^
24 669.767 22/15 v5 down 5th Av
25 697.674 3/2 P5 perfect 5th A
26 725.581 32/21 ^5 up 5th A^
27 753.488 20/13 vA5, ^d6 downaug 5th, updim 6th A#v, Bbb^
28 781.395 14/9, 11/7 vm6 downminor 6th Bbv
29 809.302 8/5 m6 minor 6th Bb
30 837.209 18/11, 13/8 ^m6 upminor 6th Bb^
31 865.116 vM6 downmajor 6th Bv
32 893.023 5/3 M6 major 6th B
33 920.93 12/7 ^M6 upmajor 6th B^
34 948.837 26/15 vA6, ^d7 downaug 6th, updim 7th B#v, Cb^
35 976.744 7/4 vm7 downminor 7th Cv
36 1004.651 16/9, 9/5 m7 minor 7th C
37 1032.558 20/11 ^m7 upminor 7th C^
38 1060.465 11/6, 24/13, 13/7 vM7 downmajor 7th C#v
39 1088.372 15/8, 28/15 M7 major 7th C#
40 1116.279 ^M7 upmajor 7th C#^
41 1144.186 vA7, ^d8 downaug 7th, updim 8ve Cxv, Db^
42 1172.093 A7, v8 aug 7th, down 8ve Cx, Dv
43 1200 2/1 P8 perfect 8ve D

The distance from C to C# is 3 keys or frets or EDOsteps. Thus one up equals one third of a sharp. Chords can be named using ups and downs as C upminor, D downmajor seven, etc. See Ups and Downs Notation - Chord names in other EDOs.

Selected just intervals by error

The following table shows how some prominent just intervals are represented in 43edo (ordered by absolute error).

Interval, complement Error (abs., in cents)
16/15, 15/8 0.103
13/12, 24/13 0.962
14/11, 11/7 1.097
11/10, 20/11 2.438
16/13, 13/8 3.318
15/13, 26/15 3.422
7/5, 10/7 3.534
4/3, 3/2 4.281
5/4, 8/5 4.384
18/13, 13/9 5.243
15/11, 22/15 6.718
11/8, 16/11 6.822
13/10, 20/13 7.702
15/14, 28/15 7.815
8/7, 7/4 7.918
9/8, 16/9 8.561
6/5, 5/3 8.665
13/11, 22/13 10.140
12/11, 11/6 11.102
14/13, 13/7 11.237
7/6, 12/7 12.199
10/9, 9/5 12.945
11/9, 18/11 15.383
9/7, 14/9 16.479

Notation of 43edo

Because 43edo is a meantone system, this makes it easier to adapt traditional Western notation to it than to some other tunings. A# and Bb are distinct and the distance between them is one meride. The whole tone is divided into seven merides so this means we can use "third-sharps", "two-thirds-sharps", "third-flats", and "two-thirds-flats" to reach the remaining notes between A and B; notes elsewhere on the scale can be notated similarly.

Alternatively, a red-note/blue-note system (similar to that proposed for sixth-tones/36edo) can be used. (This is a different use of color than Kite's color notation.) Now we have the following sequence of notes, each separated by one meride: A, red A, blue A#, A#, Bb, red Bb, blue B, B. (Note that there are red flats and blue sharps, but no red sharps or blue flats, because the latter are enharmonically equivalent to simpler notes: blue Bb is actually just A#, for instance).

The diatonic semitone is four steps, so for the region between B and C (or, E and F), we can use: B, Cb, red Cb/blue B# (they are enharmonic equivalents), B#, and C. All of the notes in 43edo therefore have unambiguous names except for two: red Cb/blue B#, and red Fb/blue E#. It might also be possible to design special symbols for those two notes (resembling a cross between the letters B and C in the former case, and E and F in the latter).

If red Cb and blue B# (and red Fb/Blue E#) are instead forced to be distinct, but the requirement that all notes be equally spaced is maintained, then we end up with a completely unambiguous red-note/blue-note notation for 45edo, which is another meantone (actually, a flattone) system.

43 edo counterpoint.mid mp3 Peter Kosmorsky (late 2011) (in meantone)