10edo

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10edo, or 10-tone equal temperament, is a tuning system which divides the octave into 10 equal parts of exactly 120 cents. It can be thought of as two circles of 5edo separated by 120 cents (or 5 circles of 2edo). It adds to 5edo a small neutral second (or large minor 2nd) and its inversion a large neutral seventh (or small major 7th); an excellent approximation of 13/8 and its inversion 16/13; and the happy 600-cent tritone that appears in every even-numbered EDO. Taking the the 360 cent large neutral third as a generator produces a heptatonic moment of symmetry scale of the form 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 (3L 4s - mosh). While not an integral or gap edo, it is a zeta peak edo. One way to interpret it in terms of a temperament of Just intonation is as a 2.7.13.15 subgroup, such that 105/104, 225/224, and 16807/16384 are tempered out. It can also be treated as a full 13-limit temperament, but it is a closer match to the aforementioned subgroup.


Intervals

Degree Cents Approximate Ratios* Additional Ratios*

of 3, 5 and 9

Interval Names ups and downs notation
0 0 1/1 256/243, 50/49, 25/24 unison unison, min 2nd P1, m2 D, Eb
1 120 16/15, 15/14, 13/14 10/9, 13/12, 81/80 small neutral second, large minor second mid 2nd ~2 D^, Ev
2 240 8/7, 15/13, 144/125 9/8, 7/6 second/third maj 2nd, min 3rd M2,m3 E, F
3 360 16/13 5/4 large neutral third mid 3rd ~3 F^, Gv
4 480 64/49, 169/128 4/3, 9/7, 13/10 smaller fourth maj 3rd, perf 4th M3,P4 F#, G
5 600 91/64, 128/91, 169/120, 240/169 7/5, 10/7, 13/9, 18/13 tritone up 4th, down 5th ^4,v5 G^, Av
6 720 49/32, 256/169 3/2, 14/9, 20/13 bigger fifth perf 5th, min 6th P5,m6 A, Bb
7 840 13/8 8/5 neutral sixth mid 6th ~6 A^, Bv
8 960 7/4, 26/15, 125/72 16/9, 12/7 sixth/seventh maj 6th, min 7th M6,m7 B, C
9 1080 15/8, 28/15, 13/7 9/5, 24/13, 160/81 small major 7th mid 7th ~7 C^, Dv
10 1200 2/1 243/128, 49/25, 48/25 octave maj 7th, octave M7, P8 C#, D
  • based on treating 10-EDO as a 2.7.13.15 subgroup temperament.
  • adding the ratios of 3, 5 and 9 introduces greater error while giving several more harmonic identities to the 10-EDO intervals.

For alternative notations, see Ups and Downs Notation -"Pentatonic" EDOs (pentatonic fifth-based) and Ups and Downs Notation - Natural Generators (heptatonic 3rd-based).

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10ed2-001.svg

Images

10edo wheel.png

Linear temperaments

Periods

per octave

Generator Temperament(s)
1 1\10 Messed-up negri (or miracle)
1 3\10 Dicot/beatles/neutral thirds scale
2 1\10 Messed-up pajara
2 2\10 Decimal / messed-up lemba
5 1\10 Blackwood/blacksmith

Commas

10 EDO tempers out the following commas. (Note: This assumes the val < 10 16 23 28 35 37 |.)

Rational Monzo Size (Cents) Name 1 Name 2 Name 3
256/243 | 8 -5 > 90.22 Limma Pythagorean Minor 2nd
25/24 | -3 -1 2 > 70.67 5-limit large semitone 5-limit chromatic semitone
16875/16384 | -14 3 4 > 51.12 Negri Comma Double Augmentation Diesis
9931568/9752117 | -25 7 6 > 31.57 Ampersand's Comma
2048/2025 | 11 -4 -2 > 19.55 Diaschisma
525/512 | -9 1 2 1 > 43.41 Avicennma Avicennma's Enharmonic Diesis
49/48 | -4 -1 0 2 > 35.70 Slendro Diesis
50/49 | 1 0 2 -2 > 34.98 Tritonic Diesis Jubilisma
686/675 | 1 -3 -2 3 > 27.99 Senga
64/63 | 6 -2 0 -1 > 27.26 Septimal Comma Archytas' Comma Leipziger Komma
9859966/9733137 | -10 7 8 -7 > 22.41 Blackjackisma
1029/1024 | -10 1 0 3 > 8.43 Gamelisma
225/224 | -5 2 2 -1 > 7.71 Septimal Kleisma Marvel Comma
16875/16807 | 0 3 4 -5 > 6.99 Mirkwai
6772805/6751042 | 11 -10 -10 10 > 5.57 Linus
2401/2400 | -5 -1 -2 4 > 0.72 Breedsma
243/242 | -1 5 0 0 -2 > 7.14 Rastma
385/384 | -7 -1 1 1 1 > 4.50 Keenanisma
441/440 | -3 2 -1 2 -1 > 3.93 Werckisma
540/539 | 2 3 1 -2 -1 > 3.21 Swetisma
3025/3024 | -4 -3 2 -1 2 > 0.57 Lehmerisma
91/90 | -1 -2 -1 1 0 1 > 19.13 Superleap
676/675 | 2 -3 -2 0 0 2 > 2.56 Parizeksma

Music

ZIA Space by Elaine Walker "Who Loves You, Me?," "Champagne," and "Avatar"

Ten Fingers play by Bill Sethares (synth guitar)

Circle of Thirds play by Bill Sethares (synth ens.)

10_fantasy play by Aaron Krister Johnson (synth monody)

Prelude in 10ET by Aaron Andrew Hunt

Future play and Sol play by ZIA (synths and voice in 10)

Prelude by Rick McGowan (Rhino synthesizer)

Ideas on the Waterfall of Expression by Igliashon Jones (synth)

For two violas and gongs by Chris Vaisvil (website) more composition information

Blues 10 by Carlo Serafini (blog entry)

Waltz 10 by Carlo Serafini (blog entry)

Smooth 10 by Carlo Serafini (blog entry)

10preview.ogg A sample of orchestral possibilities made using ZynAddSubFx under Linux (cenobyte)

decexperiment.ogg 3 tracks made in ZynAddSubFx simply mixed in Audacity (cenobyte)

10 Earwigs Invasive by Chris Vaisvil

Comets Over Flatland 9 by Randy Winchester

The Dramatic Squirrel Overture by Chris Vaisvil Details

Shimmerwing by Andrew Heathwaite and Chris Vaisvil

The Csx Freight at 1:20 am by Zach Curley

Shall I Refuse My Dinner by Steve Martin on SoundCloud

10tone demo by Clem Fortuna

Instruments

10-EDO lends itself exceptionally well to guitar (and other fretted strings), on account of the fact that five of its flat 4ths (at 480 cents) exactly spans two octaves (480*5=2400), meaning the open strings can be uniformly tuned in 4ths. This allows for greater uniformity in chord and scale fingering patterns than in 12-TET, making it exceptionally easy to learn. For instance, the fingering for an "E" chord would be 0-2-2-1-0-0 (low to high), an "A" chord would be 0-0-2-2-1-0, and a "D" chord would be 1-0-0-2-2-1. This is also the case in all EDOs which are multiples of 5, but in 10-EDO it is particularly simple.

Retuning a convention keyboard to 10edo may be done in many ways, but neglecting or making redundant the Eb and Ab keys preserves the sLsLsLs scale on the white keys. Redundancy may make modulation easier, but another option is tuning the superfluous keys to selections from 20edo which approximates the 11th harmonic with relative accuracy, among other features.

Decaphonic_Classic_Guitar.png
A Decaphonic (10-EDO) Classical Guitar

decaphonic-uke.JPG