Medium comma

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A medium comma is a comma whose size is approximately between 30 and 100 cents. These commas are easily perceptible. Many schools do not consider them true commas. In Sagittal notation, intervals in the smaller part of this category are dieses, and intervals in the larger part of this category are semitones[1].

For commas over 100 cents, see Large comma; for commas under 30 cents, see Small comma; for such under 3.5 cents see Unnoticeable comma.

Except for the 3-limit commas, the color name refers to both the comma and the temperament created when it is tempered out.

List of commas, by prime limit

3-limit commas

See also: Table of 3-limit commas
Name(s) Color Name Ratio Monzo Cents Named by
Pythagorean limma, blackwood comma Sawa sw2 256 / 243 [8 -5 90.225
301-comma Wa-301 w-301 [-477 301 88.455
248-comma Wa-248 w-248 [-393 248 84.840
111-comma Wa-111 w-111 [176 -111 82.995
142-comma Wa-142 w-142 [-225 142 77.610
217-comma Wa-217 w-217 [344 -217 75.765
89-comma Wa-89 w-89 [-141 89 73.995
17-comma, Pythagorean gothma, gothic comma Wa-17 ssw3 134217728 / 129140163 [27 -17 66.765 Flora Canou (2023)
289-comma Wa-289 w-289 [-458 289 64.995
70-comma Wa-70 w-70 [111 -70 63.150
183-comma Wa-183 w-183 [-290 183 57.765
176-comma Wa-176 w-176 [279 -176 55.920
229-comma Wa-229 w-229 [363 -229 52.305
77-comma Wa-77 w-77 [-122 77 50.535
29-comma, mystery comma Wa-29 w-29 70368744177664 /
68630377364883
[46 -29 43.305
277-comma Wa-277 w-277 [-439 277 41.535
224-comma Wa-224 w-224 [-355 224 37.920
135-comma Wa-135 w-135 [214 -135 36.075
171-comma Wa-171 w-171 [-271 171 34.305
118-comma Wa-118 w-118 [-187 118 30.690

5-limit commas

See also: Table of 5-limit commas
Name(s) Color Name Ratio Monzo Cents Named by
Hogzilla Lala-yoyo LLyy-2 4428675 / 4194304 [-22 11 2 94.132
Pelogic comma, major chroma Layobi Ly1 135 / 128 [-7 3 1 92.179
Sasagu comma Sasagu ssg3 8388608 / 7971615 [23 -13 -1 88.271
Bohpier, 13edt comma Satheyo sy13-2 1220703125 / 1162261467 [0 -19 13 84.933
Ripple Quingu g52 6561 / 6250 [-1 8 -5 84.071
Dodecoid comma Sasa-sepgu ssg74 536870912 / 512578125 [29 -8 -7 80.164 CompactStar (2023)
Doublewide Quadbiyo y8-2 390625 / 373248 [-9 -6 8 78.78
Sevond comma Sasepyo sy71 5000000 / 4782969 [6 -14 7 76.826 Petr Pařízek (2011)
Nusecond Legu g113 51018336 / 48828125 [5 13 -11 75.964
Sentinel Trila-quadyo L3y4-3 8968066875 / 8589934592 [-33 15 4 74.580
Stump Latriyo Ly3-2 273375 / 262144 [-18 7 3 72.626
Dicot comma, classic(al) chroma Yoyo yy1 25 / 24 [-3 -1 2 70.672
Superpyth, grave minor second Sayo sy2 20480 / 19683 [12 -9 1 68.719
Diminished comma, major diesis Quadgu g42 648 / 625 [3 4 -4 62.565 Paul Erlich, Carl Lumma (2002)
Passion comma Saquingu sg53 262144 / 253125 [18 -4 -5 60.611 Paul Erlich (2004)
Shibboleth Tritriyo y9-2 1953125 / 1889568 [-5 -10 9 57.273 Paul Erlich (2002)
Mynic Quinbigu g103 10077696 / 9765625 [9 9 -10 54.458
Tritonic Lala-quinyo LLy5-3 553584375 / 536870912 [-29 11 5 53.074
Negri comma, double augmentation diesis Laquadyo Ly4-2 16875 / 16384 [-14 3 4 51.120 Paul Erlich (2002)
Porcupine comma, maximal diesis Triyo y31 250 / 243 [1 -5 3 49.166 Herman Miller (1999)
Mowgli, 15edt comma Laquintrigu Lg153 31381059609 /
30517578125
[0 22 -15 48.304
Immunity comma Sasa-yoyo ssyy2 1638400 / 1594323 [16 -13 2 47.212 Mike Battaglia (2011)
Lalagu comma Lalagu LLg-2 43046721 / 41943040 [-23 16 -1 44.966
Augmented comma, diesis Trigu g32 128 / 125 [7 0 -3 41.059 Paul Erlich, Carl Lumma (2002)
Wizard Lala-quadtriyo LLy12-4 2197265625 / 2147483648 [-31 2 12 39.675
Sycamore comma Laleyo Ly11-3 48828125 / 47775744 [-16 -6 11 37.721 Paul Erlich (2002)
Absurdity comma Lala-sepgu LLg71 10460353203 /
10240000000
[-17 21 -7 36.859 Mike Battaglia (2011)
Fifive comma Saquinbiyo sy10-2 9765625 / 9565938 [-1 -14 10 35.767 Petr Pařízek (2011)
Unicorn comma Laquadbigu Lg82 1594323 / 1562500 [-2 13 -8 34.905 Paul Erlich (2002)
Valentine comma Satritrigu sg93 1990656 / 1953125 [13 5 -9 32.952 Paul Erlich (2002)
Aenima comma Trisa-quadbiyo s3y82 209715200000000 /
205891132094649
[29 -30 8 31.860 Douglas Blumeyer (2023)
Ampersand, Ampersand's comma Lala-tribiyo LLy6-3 34171875 / 33554432 [-25 7 6 31.567
Mabila comma Sasa-quinbigu ssg104 268435456 / 263671875 [28 -3 -10 30.998

7-limit commas

Name(s) Color Name Ratio Monzo Cents Named by
Hexadecatone comma, 16-7-comma Sasa-quadquadrubi ssr16-6 35184372088832 /
33232930569601
[45 0 0 -16 98.785
29-7/5-comma Twenezogu z29g2919 [-14 0 -29 29 92.854
47-35-comma Thela-fosezoyo L13z47y476 [-241 0 47 47 91.562
Septimal minor semitone Zogu zg2 21 / 20 [-2 1 -1 1 84.467
39-7/5-comma Thetriruyo r39y39-24 [19 0 39 -39 82.024
Laruru negative 2nd Laruru Lrr-2 6561 / 6272 [-7 8 0 -2 77.988
36-7-comma Quinla-quadtritrizo L5z3614 [-101 0 0 36 77.733
Prograde comma, ed7/4 microdiatonic comma Zozotrigu zzg33 392 / 375 [3 -1 -3 2 76.756
Bapbo comma Rurugu rrg1 256 / 245 [8 0 -1 -2 76.034
18-21-comma Quinla-tritribizo L5z186 [-79 18 0 18 74.056
15-35-comma Quadsa-quintrirugu s4r15g15-2 [77 0 -15 -15 72.906
slendro integer cents comma[clarification needed] [1123 0 0 -400 69.637
47-7-comma Sepsa-foseru s7r47-17 [132 0 0 -47 65.182
33-21-comma Tritrisa-letriru s9r33-9 [145 -33 0 -33 64.23
Trienstonic comma, septimal third-tone Zo z2 28 / 27 [2 -3 0 1 62.961
31-7/5-comma Thiwezogu z31g3120 [-15 0 -31 31 57.878
Greenwoodma Ruruyo rry-2 405 / 392 [-3 4 1 -2 56.482
21-7-comma Trisa-septriru s3r21-8 576460752303423488 /
558545864083284007
[59 0 0 -21 54.656
Harrison's comma Laru Lr-2 59049 / 57344 [-13 10 0 -1 50.724
39-35-comma Lela-thetrizoyo L11z39y395 [-200 0 39 39 50.445
Keega Trizogu z3g33 1029 / 1000 [-3 1 -3 3 49.492 Gene Ward Smith (2005)
Mint comma, septimal quartertone Rugu rg1 36 / 35 [2 2 -1 -1 48.77 Mike Battaglia (2012)
37-7/5-comma Thiseruyo r37y37-23 [18 0 37 -37 47.049
5-21-comma Saquinru sr5-2 4194304 / 4084101 [22 -5 0 -5 46.095
Cloudy comma Laquinzo Lz53 16807 / 16384 [-14 0 0 5 44.13
Avicennma, Avicenna's enharmonic diesis Lazoyoyo Lzyy1 525 / 512 [-9 1 2 1 43.408
8-35-comma Lala-quadbizoyo LLz8y82 2251875390625 /
2199023255552
[-41 0 8 8 41.117
Mabilisma Latrizo-aquinyo Lz3y51 1071875 / 1048576 [-20 0 5 3 38.046
Slendro diesis Zozo zz2 49 / 48 [-4 -1 0 2 35.697
Arcturus comma Larutribiyo Lry6-2 15625 / 15309 [0 -7 6 -1 35.371
Jubilisma, tritonic diesis Biruyo rryy-2 50 / 49 [1 0 2 -2 34.976
Eric Sepru r7-4 839808 / 823543 [7 8 0 -7 33.859
German sixth comma Quadla-thiwezo L4z3112 [-87 0 0 31 33.603
Llywelynsma, llywelyn comma Sasepru-agu sr7g-3 4194304 / 4117715 [22 0 -1 -7 31.905 +merlan #flirora (2021)
23-35-comma Sepsa-twetherugu s7r23g23-3 [118 0 -23 -23 31.789

11-limit commas

Name(s) Color Name Ratio Monzo Cents Named by
11-cycle major seventh prote, 35-11-comma Quinla-sepquinlo L51o35-8 [-121 0 0 0 35 96.128
Undecimal minor semitone Loru 1or1 22 / 21 [1 -1 0 -1 1 80.537
11-cycle chroma, 11-11-comma Lala-lelo LL1o11-3 285311670611 /
274877906944
[-38 0 0 0 11 64.497
Undecimal major diesis Lalu L1u1 729 / 704 [-6 6 0 0 -1 60.412
Undecimal quartertone, al-Farabi's 1/4-tone Ilo 1o1 33 / 32 [-5 1 0 0 1 53.273
Sterno Lotriru 1or3-2 352 / 343 [5 0 0 -3 1 44.84
Undecimal 1/5-tone Luyo 1uy1 45 / 44 [-2 2 1 0 -1 38.906
Hunt flat 5 comma Salu s1u2 8192 / 8019 [13 -6 0 0 -1 36.952
Igs boson, 13-11-comma Sasa-thelu ss1u134 35184372088832 /
34522712143931
[45 0 0 0 -13 32.867
Telepathma Loyo 1oy1 55 / 54 [-1 -3 1 0 1 31.767
Hunt 11-cycle comma Trila-quadtribilo L31o24-6 [-83 0 0 0 24 31.631
Undecimal diesis, konbini comma Luzogu 1uzg2 56 / 55 [3 0 -1 1 -1 31.194

13-limit commas

Name(s) Color Name Ratio Monzo Cents Named by
large tridecimal 1/3-tone Thogugu 3ogg2 26 / 25 [1 0 -2 0 0 1 67.9
small tridecimal 1/3-tone Thu 3u1 27 / 26 [-1 3 0 0 0 -1 65.337
tridecimal quartertone, Hunt minor submediant comma Latho L3o1 1053 / 1024 [-10 4 0 0 0 1 48.348
tridecimal minor diesis Thuyo 3uy1 40 / 39 [3 -1 1 0 0 -1 43.831
Astbury Latribitho L3o62 4826809 / 4718592 [-19 -2 0 0 0 6 39.256 Peter Kosmorsky (2012)

17-limit commas

Name(s) Color Name Ratio Monzo Cents Named by
Small septendeciml semitone, Arabic lute index finger Su 17u1 18 / 17 [1 2 0 0 0 0 -1 98.955
12 semitone comma Lala-quadtriso LL17o126 582622237229761 /
562949953421312
[-49 0 0 0 0 0 12 59.465
Large septendecimal quartertone Solu 17o1u2 34 / 33 [1 -1 0 0 -1 0 1 51.682
Small septendecimal quartertone Suzoyo 17uzy1 35 / 34 [-1 0 1 1 0 0 -1 50.184
11 semitone comma Sasa-lesu ss17u11-5 35184372088832 /
34271896307633
[45 0 0 0 0 0 -11 45.49
Large septendecimal 1/6-tone, 17th-partial chroma Sogugu 17ogg2 51 / 50 [-1 1 -2 0 0 0 1 34.283
Small septendecimal 1/6-tone Sutho 17u3o1 52 / 51 [2 -1 0 0 0 1 -1 33.617
Hunt 17-cycle comma Quinsa-sebisu s517u-34-14 [139 0 0 0 0 0 -34 31.516

19-limit commas

Name(s) Color Name Ratio Monzo Cents Named by
Large undevicesimal semitone Ino 19o2 19 / 18 [-1 -2 0 0 0 0 0 1 93.603
Small undevicesimal semitone Nuyo 19uy1 20 / 19 [2 0 1 0 0 0 0 -1 88.801
Undevicesimal 2/9-tone Nutho 19u3o1 39 / 38 [-1 1 0 0 0 1 0 -1 44.97
hendrix comma Noru 19or1 57 / 56 [-3 1 0 -1 0 0 0 1 30.642

23-limit commas

Name(s) Color Name Ratio Monzo Cents Named by
Large vicesimotertial semitone Twetholu 23o1u2 23 / 22 2.11.23 [-1 -1 1 76.956
Small vicesimotertial semitone Twethu 23u1 24 / 23 2.3.23 [3 1 -1 73.681
Vicesimotertial 1/5-tone Twethogu 23og2 46 / 45 2.3.5.23 [1 -2 -1 1 38.051
lipsett comma 2187 / 2116 2.3.23 [-2 7 -2 57.136 Budjarn Lambeth (2024)

Higher-limit commas

Name(s) Color name Ratio Monzo Cents Named by
Lutra comma 268119/262144 2.3.31 [-18 2 3 39.0167 Budjarn Lambeth (2024)
Oxidizer comma 729/712 2.3.89 [-3 6 -1 40.8499 Budjarn Lambeth (2023)
Canine comma 1000/979 2.5.11.89 [3 3 -1 -1 36.7431 Budjarn Lambeth (2023)
Attic comma 7921/7776 2.3.89 [-5 -5 2 31.9852 Budjarn Lambeth (2023)

Notes