Color notation was mostly developed by Kite Giedraitis. This is a brief summary. For a full explanation, see "Alternative Tunings: Theory, Notation and Practice".
- 1 Color Names for Primes 3, 5 and 7
- 2 Interval Names
- 3 Note Names
- 4 Prime Subgroup Names
- 5 Color Names for Higher Primes
- 6 Converting a Ratio to/from a Color Name
- 7 Staff Notation
- 8 Chord Names
- 9 Chord Progressions, Keys and Modulations
- 10 Temperament Names
- 11 Ups and Downs, Lifts and Drops, Plain and Mid
- 12 Glossary / Crash Course
- 13 Translations
Color Names for Primes 3, 5 and 7
Every prime above 3 has two colors, an over color (prime in the numerator) and an under color (prime in the denominator). Over colors end with -o, and under colors end with -u. The color for 3-limit ends in -a for all, which includes over (3/2, 9/8), under (4/3, 16/9) and neither (1/1, 2/1).
3-all = Wa = white (strong but colorless) = often perfect
5-over = Yo = yellow (warm and sunny) = often major
5-under = Gu ("goo") = green (not as bright as yellow) = often minor
7-over = Zo = blue/azure (dark and bluesy) = often subminor
7-under = Ru = red (alarming, inflamed) = often supermajor
The colors come in a red-yellow-green-blue rainbow, with warm/cool colors indicating sharp/flat intervals. The rainbow of 3rds runs 9/7 - 5/4 - 6/5 - 7/6. Colors are abbreviated as w, y, g, z and r. Use z (azure or Spanish/Portuguese azul) not b (blue), because b already means flat. Mnemonic: Z looks like 7 with an extra line on the bottom.
A color and a degree indicates a ratio, and vice versa. Every ratio has a spoken name and a written name. For 3/2, they are wa 5th and w5. Colors and degrees always add up predictably: z3 + g3 = zg5 = zogu 5th. Zogu not guzo, higher primes always come first. Opposite colors cancel: y3 + g3 = w5.
The JI lattice consists of many rows, each one a chain of 5ths. Each row has its own color, and each color has its own row.
The next table lists all the intervals in this lattice. See the Gallery of Just Intervals for many more examples.
|ratio||cents||color & degree|
Yo and ru intervals tend to be major, and gu and zo ones tend to be minor. But interval quality is redundant (if a third is yo, it must be major), it's not unique (there are other major thirds available), and quality isn't used with color names (see "Higher Primes" below for why). Instead of augmented and diminished, remote intervals are large (fifthward) and small (fourthward), written L and s, and sometimes abbreviated la and sa (especially in temperament names). Central, the default, means neither large nor small. The magnitude is the sum all the monzo exponents except the first one, divided by 7, and rounded off. 0 = central, 1 = large, 2 = double large, etc. 81/64 = Lw3, 135/128 = Ly1. Unfortunately, magnitudes do not add up predictably like colors and degrees do: w2 + w2 = Lw3.
Colors can be doubled or tripled: 25/16 = yoyo 5th = yy5 and 128/125 = triple gu 2nd = g32. Double and triple are often abbreviated bi- and tri-, especially in temperament names such as biruyo and trigu. Quadruple and quintuple are abbreviated quad- and quin-, as in quadyo or quingu. For sextuple, etc., see "Temperament Names" below.
Degrees can be negative: 50/49 = double ruyo negative 2nd = rryy-2. It's a negative 2nd because it goes up in pitch but down the scale: zg5 + rryy-2 = ry4. Negative is different than descending, from ry4 to zg5 is a descending negative 2nd. There are also diminished unisons, which raise the pitch but diminish the quality. For example, if 11/8 is a P4, two of them are a m7 of 121/64 = 1102¢. Going from a yo M7 = 1088¢ up to this m7 raises the pitch, and 121/120 is a dim unison.
The double-large wa negative 2nd (LLw-2, the pyth comma) is simply called the wa comma. 3-limit commas such as L3w-2 = (-30, 19) can be abbreviated as w-19, the wa-19 comma.
Wide, abbreviated W, means widened by an octave. 15/4 = Wy7 = wide yo 7th. 5/1 = WWy3 = double-wide yo 3rd. More examples here.
Notes are named zEb, yyG#, etc. spoken as "zo E flat" and "yoyo G sharp". Notes are never large or small, only intervals are. Uncolored notes default to wa. The relative-notation lattice above can be superimposed on this absolute-notation lattice to name every note and interval. For example, D + y3 = yF#, and from yE to ryF# = r2.
Prime Subgroup Names
Just as wa means 3-all or 3-limit, ya means 5-all and includes wa, yo, gu, yoyo, gugu, etc. Ya = the 2.3.5 prime subgroup = 5-limit. Za = 7-all = 2.3.7. Yaza = 188.8.131.52 = the full 7-limit. Nowa means without wa, and yaza nowa = 2.5.7.
Prime 2 (even more colorless than wa) is clear, abbreviated ca, and yaza noca = 3.5.7. 2-limit intervals like 2/1 are called wa not clear, for simplicity. Nowaca means without 2 or 3, thus 5.7.11 is yazala nowaca.
Color Names for Higher Primes
Colors for primes greater than 7 are named after the number itself, using the prefix i- for disambiguation as needed:
Lo = 11-over, lu = 11-under, and la = 11-all = 2.3.11 Because "lo C" sounds like "low C", lo when by itself becomes ilo ("ee-LOW"). But with other words it doesn't use i-, as in 11/7 = loru 5th. La when by itself may become ila, to avoid confusion with the solfege note La, and also with large. Lo and lu are abbreviated to 1o and 1u on the score and in interval names and chord names, e.g. ilo A = 1oA, ilo 4th = 1o4 = 11/8, and C ilo seven = C1o7 = 1/1 - 11/9 - 3/2 - 11/6 on C. Lolo is 1oo, triple-lu is 1u3, etc. The associated color is lavender (mnemonic: "e-leven-der"), which refers to both ilo and lu, since they are only 7.1¢ apart. Lavender is a pseudocolor that implies the Lulu aka Neuter temperament. IIo notes could be called lovender, and lu notes could be called luvender. Both are "shades" of lavender.
Tho = 13-over, thu = 13-under, and tha = 13-all. Tho and thu are abbreviated as 3o and 3u on the score and in interval names, e.g. 13/8 = 3o6 = tho 6th, 14/13 = 3uz2 = thuzo 2nd.
Prime subgroups: yala = 184.108.40.206, zalatha nowa = 220.127.116.11, and yazalatha = 18.104.22.168.11.13 = the full 13-limit. Noya is a general term, not used in actual subgroup names, that indicates the absence of 5 and the presence of higher primes, e.g. zala, latha and zalatha are all noya. Likewise, there's noza and noyaza.
On the score and in note names, the 1o accidental either raises by 33/32 or lowers by 729/704. The meaning will usually be clear from context, however it's safer to write at the top of the page either "1o4 = P4" or "1o4 = A4". Likewise, 3o6 should be noted as either m6 or M6. While the note 11/8 above C can be written two ways, either as 1oF or as 1oF#, the interval 11/8 can only be written one way, as 1o4. Likewise, 13/8 above C is either 3oA or 3oAb, but 13/8 is only 3o6. This is the rationale for using large/small/central rather than major/minor. 11/9 is ambiguously major or minor, but unambiguously central. Intervals names and chord names become unambiguous for la and tha intervals. Another rationale: commonly used intervals and chords are all central, and get concise names: gu 3rd not gu minor 3rd, A gu not A gu minor, etc. (see chord names below).
So = 17-over, su = 17-under, and sa = 17-all, abbreviated as 17o and 17u. Iso is an alternate form of so, to distinguish it from the solfege syllable So. 17/12 = 17o5 = iso So. Isa is an alternate form of sa, to distinguish it from small, and from the Indian saregam syllable Sa.
Ino = 19-over, nu = 19-under, and na = 19-all, abbreviated as 19o and 19u. Ino because "no 3rd" could mean either 19/16 or thirdless. Inu is an alternate form of nu, to distinguish "the nu key" from "the new key". 12edo implies yasana = 22.214.171.124.19.
Twenty-tho = 23-over, twenty-thu = 23-under, twenty-tha =23-all, abbreviated as 23o, 23u and 23a. 126.96.36.199.23 = yaza23a = yaza-twenty-tha. 23/16 = 23o5 = twenty-tho 5th, and 23/22 = 23o1u2 = twenty-tholu 2nd. 529/512 = bi-twenty-tho 2nd.
Similarly, twenty-no/-nu/-na = 29o/29u/29a, thirty-wo/-wu/-wa = 31o/31u/31a, thirty-so/-su/-sa = 37o/37u/37a, etc.
The prefix i- is only used when confusion is possible. Thus 19/15 = nogu 4th, not inogu 4th, and 29o = twenty-no, not twenty-ino.
For any prime P, the degree of the ratio P/1 is determined by its 8ve-reduced cents, and how it relates to 12edo: 0-50¢ = 1sn, 50-250¢ = 2nd, 250-450¢ = 3rd, 450-600¢ = 4th, 600-750¢ = 5th, 750-950¢ = 6th, 950-1150¢ = 7th, and 1150-1200¢ = 8ve. Thus 23/16 = 628¢ is a 5th, 31/16 = 1145¢ is a 7th, and 37/32 = 251¢ is a 3rd. This makes the "pseudo-edomapping" <7 11 16 20 24 26 29 30 32 34 34 37...|. (An alternate method is to use the 7edo edomapping, but that requires using every other 14edostep as boundaries, less convenient than the 24edo boundaries used here.)
Converting a Ratio to/from a Color Name
Often a ratio can be converted by breaking it down into simpler, familiar ratios. For example, 45/32 is 5/4 times 9/8, which is y3 plus w2. The colors and degrees are summed, making y4. The magnitude is not summed, and must be found either visually from the lattices above, or from the monzo directly. 45/32 = |-5 2 1>, and (2+1)/7 rounds to 0, so it's central, and 45/32 = y4.
For more complex ratios, a more direct method is used:
Converting a ratio: Find the monzo by prime factorization. To find the color, combine all the appropriate colors for each prime > 3, higher primes first. To find the degree, first find the stepspan, which is the dot product of the monzo with the "pseudo-edomapping" discussed above <7 11 16 20 24 26 29 30...|. Then add 1, or subtract 1 if the stepspan is negative. To find the magnitude, add up all the monzo exponents except the first one, divide by 7, and round off. Combine the magnitude, color and degree to make the color name.
Example: ratio = 63/40, monzo = |-3 2 -1 1>, color = zogu, stepspan = <7 11 16 20| dot |-3 2 -1 1> = -21 + 22 - 16 + 20 = 5 steps, degree = 5 + 1 = a 6th, magnitude = round [(2 + (-1) + 1) / 7] = round (2/7) = 0 = central, interval = zg6.
Converting a color name: Let S be the stepspan of the interval, S = degree - sign (degree). Let M be the magnitude of the color name, with L = 1, LL = 2, etc. Small is negative and central is zero. Let the monzo be |a b c d e...>. The colors directly give you all the monzo entries except a and b. Let X = the dot product of |0 0 c d e...> with the 7edo edomapping. Then b = (2S - 2X + 3) mod 7 + 7M - 3, and a = (S - X - 11b) / 7. Convert the monzo to a ratio.
Example: interval = sgg2, S = 2 - 1 = 1 step, M = small = -1, monzo = |a b -2>, X = <7 11 16| dot |0 0 -2> = -32, b = (2·1 - 2·(-32) + 3) mod 7 + 7·(-1) - 3 = 69 mod 7 - 7 - 3 = 6 - 10 = -4, a = (1 - (-32) - 11·(-4)) / 7 = 77/7 = 11, monzo = |11 -4 -2>, ratio = 2048/2025.
Notes on the staff default to wa. Non-wa notes have a color accidental like g, ry, etc. Like conventional sharp/flat accidentals, they apply to every such note in the measure and in the same octave. Unlike conventional accidentals which apply to a note (e.g. A), color accidentals only apply to one specific "version" of that note (e.g. A flat or A natural). For example, the yo accidental in the first chord applies to all the D naturals in that measure, but not to the D flats.
Staff notation can optionally include a color signature written above the staff. This makes color notation more similar to Johnston notation.
Color notation can optionally be made more similar to Sagittal notation by including two more accidentals, p and q (long forms po and qu = "ku"), to indicate raising/lowering by a pythagorean comma. (See Sagittal-JI-Translated-To-Colors.png.) For example, yF# = ypGb, and zEb = zqD#. This allows trills to always be written as a 2nd, less cluttered. L and s never appear on the staff. Tripled colors are written as y3 not yyy. In MuseScore, color accidentals are made by adding fingerings to the notes, then editing the fingering text. The font used here is Arial Black.
Triads are named after their 3rd, e.g. a yo chord has a yo 3rd. A yo chord rooted on C is a Cy chord = "C yo" = C yE G. Qualities such as major and minor aren't used, because a chord with an 11/9 3rd is hard to classify. Thirdless dyads are written C5 = w1 w5 or C(zg5) = w1 zg5. The four main yaza triads:
Tetrads are named e.g. "C yo six" = Cy6 = C yE G yA. The 11 main yaza tetrads, with chord homonyms (same shape, different root) equated:
A 9th chord contains a 3rd, 5th and 7th. An 11th chord contains all these plus a 9th. A 13th chord contains all these plus an 11th. The 5th, 9th and/or 13th default to wa. The 6th, 7th, and/or 11th default to the color of the 3rd. Thus Cy13 = w1 y3 w5 y7 w9 y11 w13, and Cy9 and Cy11 are subsets of this chord. However, if an 11th is added, it defaults to wa. See z7,11:
Alterations are always in parentheses, additions never are, e.g. z7(zg5) and z,y6. An alteration's degree must match a note in the chord, e.g. Cz7(y6) is invalid. But an exception is made for sus chords, where degree 2 or 4 alter the 3rd: C(z4) = w1 z4 w5. The sus note defaults to wa: Cy9(4) = w1 w4 w5 y7 w9.
Omissions are indicated by "no", the Hendrix chord might be Ch7z10no5. Unless using po or qu, enharmonic substitutions aren't allowed. 7/3 is a 10th, never a 9th unless it's a qu 9th (e.g. Ch7zq9no5). A no3 tetrad can also be written as a 5 chord with an added 6th or 7th: Cy6no3 = C5y6, and Cz7(zg5)no3 = C(zg5)z7.
The y,z7 chord is called the h7 chord ("har-seven"), because it's part of the harmonic series. Ch9 = Cy,z7,w9 and Ch11 = Cy,z7,w9,1o11. The s7 ("sub-seven") chord is part of the subharmonic series. It's the first 7 subharmonics, with the 7th subharmonic becoming the root. Cs9 = Cr,g7,w9 and Cs11 = C1o11(1or5,1og9). Note that s9 is not s7 plus a 9th, but a completely different chord. Cs6 = Cg,r6. Other than the s6 chord, all harmonic/subharmonic numbers must be odd, Ch6 and Ch8 are invalid. For any odd number N > 7, ChN is 1:3:5:7...N and CsN is N/(1:3:5:7...N). Additions, alterations and omissions refer to degrees, not harmonics or subharmonics: Ch7,11 adds w11, not 1o11. Ch9no5 omits w5, not y3. However, all numbers > 13 refer to (sub)harmonics, e.g. Ch9,15 adds y7 and Ch19no15 omits it.
Chords can be classified as bicolored (e.g. g7 or r6), tricolored (e.g. z7(zg5) or z,y6), quadricolored (e.g. s6(zg5) or h7,zg9), etc.
Chord Progressions, Keys and Modulations
The tonic is always wa. The root of each chord has a color, which defaults to wa. C - Am - F - G7 might be Cy - yAg - Fy - Gy,w7, spoken as "C yo, yo A gu, F yo, G yo wa-seven". If the root isn't wa, the root color is added to each interval's color. Thus yAg = yA + (w1 g3 w5) = yA + wC + yE.
In relative notation, the I, IV and V chords default to a wa root. But II, III, VI and VII must have an explicit root-color. The previous example becomes Iy - yVIg - IVy - Vy,w7, spoken as "one yo, yo-six gu, four yo, five yo wa-seven".
In adaptive JI, chords are just, but roots move by tempered intervals. Comma pumps are indicated with brackets: Cy - yAg - [y=w]Dg - Gy - Cy. The pattern is [old=new]: the previous chord implies yDg and the following chord implies wDg. For more examples, see Comma pump examples.
Keys and scales are loosely named after the colors used. Wa is assumed present. In 5-limit JI, the key/scale of A minor is A gu. The Bbh7 - Ebh7 - Bbh7 - Fh9 example in the staff notation section is in Bb yo zo. Like chords, keys can be classified as bicolored (A gu), tricolored (Bb yo zo), etc.
Analogous to the relative and parallel major or minor, one can modulate to relative gu, parallel ru, etc. Modulating from a yo key to the relative gu means using gu chords on yo roots. Modulating from yo to the parallel gu means using gu chords on wa roots. Going from yo zo to the relative gu means using chords with gu and/or ru in them on yo roots. Going to the relative ru means using the same chords on zo roots. Going from yo zo to the parallel gu ru means using the same chords on wa roots. One can also modulate fourthward or fifthward, abbreviated 4thwd or 5thwd. Modulating in either direction is modulating waward. Modulating from a yo key to the relative gu, then from there to the parallel yo is modulating yoward. A root movement by a yo interval (e.g. Iy - yVIg) is a yoward move. Likewise, there's guward, and yaward includes both. Likewise, there's zoward, ruward, zaward, iloward, etc.
Temperaments are named after the color of the comma(s) they temper out. Many words are abbreviated. Large becomes la and small becomes sa. Double, triple, etc, become bi-, tri-, quad- and quin-. Sextuple is tribi-, and septuple is sep-. Eleven-fold is le- = "eleven exponent".
Meantone is the Gu temperament. Srutal is Sagugu. Porcupine is Triyo. Some multi-comma temperaments have multiple commas in their name, and some don't. Septimal Meantone is Gu, but Dominant Meantone is Gu & Rugu. Untempered primes are included with a plus sign. Blackwood is 5-edo + ya. The 188.8.131.52 subgroup with 81/80 tempered out is Gu + za.
Temperament names are further explained here: Color notation/Temperament Names.
Ups and Downs, Lifts and Drops, Plain and Mid
Color notation merely renames ratios more conveniently, and strictly speaking, it only applies to just intonation. However, ratios are often used to loosely describe edo notes, and colors can be used as well. A more precise application is to use ups and downs (^ and v) as "virtual colors", accidentals that always map to exactly one edostep. Ups and downs are used on the score just like color accidentals are. Notes are named e.g. up C sharp = ^C#. Some edos like 9, 12, 16, 19, 23 and 26 don't require ups and downs.
Unlike actual colors, virtual colors generally add up to something simpler, e.g. three of 22edo's ups adds up to an A1. Unlike actual colors, virtual colors combine with major, minor, etc. Intervals are named upmajor 3rd = ^M3, up 4th = ^4, downaug 5th = vA5, etc. Chords are named C upminor 7th = C^m7 = C ^Eb G ^Bb, etc.
Plain means neither up nor down, analogous to natural meaning neither sharp nor flat. Mid, abbreviated ~, means exactly midway between major and minor. Mid simplifies 72edo notation: m2, ^m2, v~2, ~2, ^~2, vM2, M2. Upmid (^~) means one edostep above mid in 72edo, but one half edostep above mid in 53edo. Mid is only used in relative notation, it never applies to notes and never appears on the staff.
Rank-2 temperaments can be notated with ups and downs as well. Plain and mid are also used in this context. Some temperaments require an additional pair of virtual colors, lifts and drops (/ and \). Notes are named lift C = /C, downdrop F sharp = v\F#, etc. Intervals are named drop 4th = \4, uplift major 3rd = ^/M3, etc. Plain means neither up nor down nor lifted nor dropped. There may be upmid or liftmid intervals. Chords are named C-up lift-seven = C^,/7 = C ^E G /Bb, C uplift-seven = C^/7 = C ^/E G ^/Bb, etc. See pergens.
The color name of a rank-2 temperament can be used to name MOS and MODMOS scales, as in Triyo. Individual modes can be named as 2nd Triyo, 3rd Triyo b7, etc. This notation is discussed here: Naming Rank-2 Scales using Mode Numbers.
Glossary / Crash Course
Over = prime in the numerator, under = prime in the denominator. All = over, under or neither: wa = 3-limit, ya = 2.3.5, yaza = 184.108.40.206.
The multiplier bi- is only used for compound colors like ruyo: 50/49 is biruyo, but 25/24 is yoyo.
|prime||-o for over||-u ("oo") for under||-a for all||multiplier|
|5||yo (yellow)||y||gu (green)||g||ya||—||quin|
|7||zo (azul)||z||ru (red)||r||za||—||sep|
29o = twenty-no, 31o = thirty-wo, 37o = thirty-so, etc. In the multiplier words for primes 11 and above, -e ("eh") stands for exponent.
|quad||quadruple, multiplier of 4||Diminished temperament = 648/625 = Quadgu = g4T|
|-bi||#2||as a suffix, 2nd smallest comma in the row segment||Meantone = 81/80 = Gu = gT, Father = 16/15 = Gubi = g#2T|
|large||L||augmented by 2187/2048 from the central ratio||32/27 = (central) wa 3rd = w3, 81/64 = large wa 3rd = Lw3|
|small||s||diminished by 2187/2048 from the central ratio||27/16 = (central) wa 6th = w6, 128/81 = small wa 6th = sw6|
|la||L||large, used in temperament & comma names||Schismatic = (-15 8 1) = Layo = LyT|
|sa||s||small, used in temperament & comma names||Srutal = 2048/2025 = Sagugu = sggT|
|plus||+||add an untempered prime to the temperament||Blackwood = 2.3.5 with 256/243 tempered out = 5-edo + ya|
|nowa||remove 3 (wa) from the subgroup, i.e. no-threes||2.5.7 = yaza nowa, 2.5.7 with 50/49 = Biruyo nowa|
|noca||remove 2 (clear) from the subgroup, i.e. non-8ve||3.5.7 = yaza noca, 3.5.7 with 245/243 = Zozoyo noca|
|nowaca||remove both 2 and 3 from the subgroup||5.7.11 = yazala nowaca|
|and||&||joins commas that are tempered out||7-limit Porcupine = 220.127.116.11 with 250/243 & 64/63 = Triyo & Ru|
|i-||disambiguation prefix||no 3rd = omit the 3rd, ino 3rd = 19/16|
|-a-||delimits a multiplier||1029/1000 = Trizogu = z3g3, 343/320 = Trizo-agu = z3g|
|wide||W||widened by an 8ve||7/4 = zo 7th = z7, 7/2 = wide zo 7th = Wz7|
|-ward||wd||refers to the direction of chord root movement||I - IV = 4thwd, I - V = 5thwd, I - III = yoward, i - iii = guward|
|har||h||refers to a harmonic series (otonal) chord||4:5:6:7 = C har seven = Ch7|
|sub||s||refers to a subharmonic series (utonal) chord||7/(7:6:5:4) = C sub seven = Cs7|
|po||p||adds a pythagorean comma, to change the degree||15/14 = ruyo unison = ry1 = ruyopo 2nd = ryp2|
|qu||q||subtracts a pythagorean comma||49/48 = zozo 2nd = zz2 = zozoqu unison = zzq1|
Temperaments use "virtual colors" represented with ^ v and / \:
|up||^||raised by some comma|
|down||v||lowered by some comma|
|lift||/||raised by some other comma|
|drop||\||lowered by some other comma|
|plain||neither up nor down nor lifted nor dropped|
|mid||~||exactly halfway between major and minor|
- For translations of color notation terms into other languages, see Color notation/Translations.